Sigmund Freud, Uncategorized

Sigmund Freud Reading Response

I have read other works of Sigmund Freud in many different classes and usually it seems like he states similar ideas. One of the ideas I learned in my education classes and saw present in our classical theory class, were about the stages of life that Freud discusses. The stages of life are oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. In this book however we see he mentioned oral, anal, latency and genital, the phallic stage was not mentioned. In phallic stage he speaks about the Oedipus and Electra complexes.

Freud present ideas that are very interesting and sometimes hard to agree with. I know when he wrote  during his time, his theories were refuted and I think even today it is hard to accept his theories. His second essay, “Infantile Sexuality”, it kind of hard to imagine a young baby being a sexual being especially because the baby and  sex organs are not full developed. Nevertheless, he points out that a baby sucks it’s thump because it is a pleasurable things that mimics breastfeeding. So when he speaks of sexuality, he speaks about it in more of a pleasure seeking way. (Not real sure about this.) Then, the baby realizes that it manipulate and can do certain things that will bring it pleasure. So at a certain age babies realize they can control their excrement.

I thought the second essay was more interesting than the first. He presented some interesting ideas but I don’t know if I am fully convinced. (I don’t think my opinion has anything to do with how he conducted research. After reading Du Bois and his narrative, shifting over to an author who gives facts without any example is harder to read. I think it would be interesting if he gave an example of a patience, although that’s is probably unethical. (Actually one of his contemporary, Carl Jung, gives an example of patient problems and its relation to his theory. )

Emile Durkheim

A short Study Guide for exam #2

  • Both Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim both speak about division of labor. ( Ideas are opposing)
  • Karl Marx’s idea of  division of labor:
  1. In division of labor we see two opposing forces. Throughout history there has been class struggle.
  2. Marx sees the tension between the oppressed and oppressor. (Not a good thing)
  3. Not stating that capitalism is bad but rather there needs to be a revolution.
  • Durkheim’s idea of division of labor:
  1. Division of labor creates individuality, specialization and hierarchy
  2. Equilibrium necessary for society. (sees this as a good thing)
  • For Durkheim civilization is a byproduct of increased organic solidarity.
  • Solidarity:  cohesion, unity
  • Two solidarity: Organic (depends on societal parts, division of labor)& Mechanic (collective conscious, born into society with certain roles.)
  • Durkheim- society not oppressive, natural occurrence needed to balance society
  • capitalism is an organic solidarity of structure that works for society as a whole.



Karl Marx, Uncategorized

Marx:Exam #1(Full marked response)

Dialectical Materialism is an important aspect of Karl Marx. This term may seem loaded but if we take this term in parts we can better understand it

Lets first start with the term dialectical. What prefix do we recognize? Dia- This prefix means two. You see this prefix in words such as dialogue, which means a conversation happening among two people. Dialectical in this case means the interplay of two ideas, which we will term thesis and antithesis. The overall effect of this is the synthesis. The thesis and antithesis come together to bring  forth or revolutionize a new idea which we will term the synthesis. (Synthesis in other words is the joining of both aspects of thesis and antithesis. )

Now let’s work with the word materialism. You can think of materialism in opposition to idealism. In idealism  individuals are concerned with ideas which are intangible. Materialism, on the other hand, deals with physical matter (Tangible).

Dialectical materialism is a method of inquiry to understand the world. This the method that Karl Marx uses to explain his theory on class struggle. Marx uses this method to map out his argument. He argues that throughout history there has been individuals who own necessary resources and other individuals who sell their labor power. This tension between the two classes has called for a revolution. Let’s see how this map looks visually.

Master                                  Lord
                feudalism                             Capitalism
Slave                                      serf

In this map, the master and later the lords own the means of production. The slave and serf were using their energy and labor to produce commodity for the master and lord. Basically, the slave and serf did not own any resources and sold their labor power.

Due to the tension between these two classes a new system was created. Many have called dialectical materialism as idea dealing with transformation or revolution. You should have the class map out something using this method. You can take some part of American history to do this . For example, the idea of voting…

Born citizens                           white men                    Men
                    14th Amend.                       15th amend.                            19th
citizens                                      Non- white               Women

In this diagram we see that born citizens could only vote but not naturalized citizen. The tension between this group caused fir a change, which lead to the 14th amendment. This diagram goes on to map other tension and revolution dealing with voting in America.